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This invention concerns apparatus for controlling the peak-to-peak amplitude and DC level of a video signal in a video binare optionen signale freiburg employing digital video signal processing techniques.

The analog color video signals are coupled to the kinescope via analog buffer amplifiers and video output kinescope driver amplifiers which provide video output signals at a high level suitable for driving intensity control electrodes of the kinescope.

In such digital television system, viewer generated control signals for normally controlling the brightness and contrast of an image displayed by the kinescope are processed in digital form by digital video signal processing circuits which precede the output digital-to-analog signal converters.

It is herein recognized that digital processing of the brightness and contrast control signals by the digital video signal processor may be undesirable in some systems.

Digital processing of the brightness and contrast control signals requires that a significant portion of the video signal processing dynamic range be reserved to accomodate the brightness and contrast control range, whereby the dynamic range available for optimum amplitude resolution of the video signal is reduced.

The digital bit processing capability of the digital video signal processor video binare optionen signale freiburg be increased to provide the dynamic range desired for video signal processor, but this option involves additional circuit complexity and cost e. Accordingly, there is disclosed herein a video signal processing system employing digital video signal processing techniques wherein in accordance with the principles of the present invention, viewer generated control signals for normally controlling the brightness or contrast of a displayed image are utilized in analog form, exclusive of the digital signal processor, for controlling the magnitude of the video signal.

In a disclosed implementation of the invention, the analog control signals are applied to a video output kinescope driver stage for controlling the magnitude of the video signal processed by the driver stage.

In a disclosed embodiment of the invention the driver stage comprises a video signal digital-to-analog converter video binare optionen signale freiburg is advantageously capable of directly driving an intensity control electrode of the kinescope. Clamp 11 operates during periodic image blanking intervals, such as the so-called "back porch" interval of each horizontal image blanking interval when video image information is absent. The clamped video signal applied to ADC 12 exhibits a predetermined black level as a result of the clamping action, and is converted to digital binary form by means of ADC Digital signals from ADC 12 are processed by a digital video signal video binare optionen signale freiburg 14 including luminance and chrominance signal processing networks and a network for combining processed luminance and chrominance signals to produce plural digital output color image video binare optionen signale freiburg signals r, g and b.

In this example the r, g and b signals are represented by an 8-bit digital signal in binary form 2 0. A high level analog video output signal R from digital-to-analog converter DAC stage 20 appears across a load impedance 24 with a magnitude suitable for directly driving a cathode intensity control electrode 26 of an image displaying kinescope 28 such as may be found in a television receiver, video monitor or other similar video processing and display system.

Suitable low pass filtering of the output signal from DAC 20 is provided by means of load resistor 24 video binare optionen signale freiburg the capacitance associated with the kinescope cathode.

DAC 20 includes a plurality of input inverters I0-I7 which act as switches and which respectively receive input digital signal bits 2 video binare optionen signale freiburg. Inverters I0-I7 may, for example, include bipolar transistors operated as on-off switches. Output signals from inverters IO-I7, as developed in accordance with the logic state of binary input signals 2 0. Devices Q0-Q7 have gate electrodes connected in common as will be discussed, output drain electrodes connected in common to load impedance 24, and separate input source electrodes which respectively receive binary weighted signal currents via resistors R0-R7.

VMOS devices Q0-Q7 have drain and source electrodes arranged along a vertical axis in contrast to lateral devices which have gate, source and drain elements on the same surface. Devices Q0-Q7 can be readily constructed on a common integrated circuit substrate, preferably together with resistors R0-R7 and switching inverters I0-I7. The vertical structure of the VMOS output devices faciliates the fabrication of these devices with a high breakdown voltage rating, allowing the devices to directly drive high voltage cathode electrode 6 of kinescope Viewer generated analog control signals B and C for normally controlling the brightness and contrast, respectively, of a displayed image are provided by control signal sources 40 and 30, respectively, which may each comprise, for example, a viewer adjustable potentiometer or a microprocessor and digital-to-analog converter for developing variable magnitude analog control signals.

These signals are coupled to driver stage 20 and are utilized in analog rather than digital form for controlling image contrast and brightness via the analog signal coupling path to the kinescope. Analog processing of the brightness and contrast control signals advantageously does not require that a significant portion of the dynamic range of digital video signal processor 14 be used to accommodate the brightness and contrast control ranges, which would otherwise compromise the amplitude resolution of the digitally processed video signal, unless digital circuits with greater bit processing capability e.

The use of the latter circuits, however, undesirably increases video binare optionen signale freiburg complexity and cost of the digital signal processing circuits. The analog brightness control circuit comprises a keyed circuit 45 including transistorsand operates as follows. A KEYING signal corresponding to a version of a composite image blanking signal, including both horizontal and vertical blanking pulse components, is applied to a voltage translating circuit including emitter coupled transistors 43 and The KEYING signal renders current source transistor 42 video binare optionen signale freiburg via transistors 43 and 44 during each horizontal image trace line interval.

A resulting voltage developed at the emitter of transistor 41 is approximately 0. The brightness control voltage from the emitter of transistor 41 is conveyed via a resistor 46 to the video binare optionen signale freiburg electrode of another VMOS FET transistor Q8 which has its drain-source conduction path coupled to load resistor 24 and the red cathode signal coupling path at the output of red video signal driver Resistors 47 and 48 similarly couple the brightness control voltage to the green and blue cathode signal coupling paths.

The current flowing through resistor 46 and transistor Q8 in response to the brightness control voltage modifies the DC level of the video signal voltage developed across output resistor 24 in accordance with the level of the brightness control voltage. The currents conducted by resistors 46, 47 and 48 during image trace intervals are related to both the brightness control voltage at the base of transistor 41, and to the magnitude of contrast control voltage C applied to the interconnected gate electrodes of driver transistors Q0-Q8 as will be discussed subsequently.

The current provided by current source transistor 42 is chosen to be larger than the maximum expected sum of currents conducted by resistors 46, 47 and 48 to assure that transistor 41 remains conductive when current source transistor 42 conducts. The system of FIG. DC stabilization network 50 includes an operational transconductance amplifier 52 which is keyed to conduct during each horizontal image blanking interval in response to a sampling pulse P which encompasses the so-called "back video binare optionen signale freiburg portion of each horizontal blanking interval, for example.

When keyed to conduct, amplifier 52 compares an input blanking level control reference voltage BL R from a source 60 with an input voltage which video binare optionen signale freiburg derived from the junction of voltage divider resistors 54 and 55 and which is representative of the output bias of the driver stage since during blanking intervals the latter voltage is related to the magnitude of the DC output level of the driver stage when video signal modulation is absent.

Resistors 54 and 55 are coupled between a point of reference potential ground video binare optionen signale freiburg the video binare optionen signale freiburg cathode signal path at the junction of output resistor 24 and the interconnected drain electrodes of driver transistors Q0-Q7.

An error signal related to the difference in magnitude between the inputs to amplifier 52 is stored by a capacitor 58 and modulates the conduction of a transistor 59, which in turn modulates the current conduction of transistor Q8 such that the current in output resistor 24 is caused to vary with a sense for reducing the difference between the levels of the input voltages of amplifier 52 to a minimum, thereby stabilizing video binare optionen signale freiburg horizontal DC blanking level at the output of the driver stage.

Video binare optionen signale freiburg by feedback action stabilization network 50 maintains the input voltages of amplifier 52 at substantially equal levels, which corresponds to a desired substantially constant quiescent DC bias level at the output of the driver stage.

Blanking level control voltage BL R for the red signal channel can be developed by means of a manually pre-set potentiometer, or by means of a microprocessor and digital-to-analog converter in an automatic control system for example. Blanking level control voltages BL G and BL B are similary developed and utilized with respect to the green and blue cathode signal paths. The blanking level of the video signal closely approximates the black level of the video signal.

Since brightness control voltage B from source 40 is decoupled from the cathode signal path during video signal blanking intervals when current source 42 is rendered non-conductive by the KEYING signalthe output blanking level in the cathode signal path is representative of video signal black level independent of the image brightness content as set by the viewer. This permits the kinescope cathode to exhibit a reference black level bias condition during blanking intervals when, for example, the kinescope cathode bias may be monitored and controlled for maintaining a desired level of cathode bias such as by means of an automatic kinescope bias control system, various types of which are known.

In a manual kinescope bias control system, resistor 55 can be an adjustable device which is pre-set such that a desired level of kinescope cathode bias video binare optionen signale freiburg established via the action of feedback stabilization network Contrast control of a displayed image is produced in response to gain control voltage C, which is applied to the interconnected common gate electrodes of output devices Q0-Q7 for varying the signal gain of these devices, and thereby varying the peak-to-peak amplitude of the video signal components processed by these devices.

The common gate electrode of driver stage 20 exhibits a high impedance which advantageously permits a fast response to contrast control video binare optionen signale freiburg C, and exhibits good gain control linearity.

A white balance control network 65 also provides a gain control output voltage W R to the commonly interconnected gate electrodes of output devices Q0-Q7. White balance control voltages W G and W B are similarly coupled to driver stages associated with the green and blue signal channels. The white balance control voltages, which may be derived by means of an automatic white balance sensing and control system such as associated with the ITT digital television system, or by means of manually adjustable resistors, serve to separately adjust the signal gains of each driver stage, such as video binare optionen signale freiburg alignment of the system, so that the kinescope properly reproduces a white image display in response to an input white image representative video signal.

The white balance control voltages can also be developed as described in connection with an automatic white balance control system video binare optionen signale freiburg in U. Elements common to FIGS. Digital video signals r, g and b from processor 14 are respectively applied to red, green and blue output driver stages 20R, 20G and 20B which have associated output load resistors 24R, 24G and 24B.

The signal gains of drivers 24R, 24G and 24B and thereby the peak amplitudes of the associated color video signals are controlled concurrently in response to contrast control voltage C. The DC output level of the driver stages and thereby the brightness of a reproduced image are controlled concurrently in response to brightness control voltage B as coupled via network The output bias levels of each driver stage are separately controlled by means of control networks 50R, 50G and 50B which operate as discussed with regard to FIG.

With this arrangement variations in the current conducted by transistor 59 advantageously do not influence the voltage developed across resistor 46 because the gate-source voltage of transistor Q9, which determines the source current of transistor Q9 and thereby the current in resistor 46, does not change as the conduction of transistor 59 varies.

Also, a high voltage output transistor 70 forms a cascode output signal amplifier together with signal transistors Q0-Q7. With this cascode arrangement low voltage, low power devices can be used for transistors Q0-Q7 and Q8, Q9.

As shown in FIG. With this arrangement variations in the current conducted by transistor 59 have no significant influence on the voltage developed across resistor 46 because the current determining base-emitter junction voltage of transistor 72 remains substantially constant as the conduction of transistor 59 varies. What is claimed is: A digital video signal processing and display system comprising: A system according to claim 1, wherein said providing means provides first and second control signals.

A system according to claim 2, wherein said driver stage comprises an array of MOS transistor devices each having gate, drain and source electrodes. A system according to claim 2, and further comprising means for generating a third control signal for effecting white balance control of images displayed by said display means, said third control signal being coupled to said driver stage for controlling the peak-to-peak amplitude of said analog video output signals from said driver stage; and.

A system according to claim 3 and video binare optionen signale freiburg comprising a further transistor device coupled between the output of said driver stage and said load impedance, and forming a cascode video signal amplifier with said array of transistor devices. A system according to claim 8 and further video binare optionen signale freiburg keyed bias control means with an input coupled to said analog video signal path for monitoring the black level of said output analog video signals from said converter means during video image blanking intervals for developing an output bias control signal at an output, said output bias control signal being coupled to said source electrode of said further transistor device.

US USA en EP EPA3 en Video image reproducing apparatus provided with a contrast adjustment device, and method of adjusting the contrast in such a reproducing apparatus. Video signal processor for controlling the brightness and contrast of a display device. Circuit for controlling bias voltage used to regulate contrast in a display panel.

Video signal processing system including analog to digital converter and related method for calibrating analog to digital converter.

Video driver circuit and method for automatic gray scale adjustment and elimination of contrast tracking errors. Video signal processing circuit and method for blanking signal insertion with transient distortion suppression.

Predictably biased kinescope driver arrangement in a video signal processing system. Predictable automatic brightness control circuit in a video signal image reproducing system. Video signal adjusting apparatus, display using the apparatus, and method of adjusting the display. Beam current limiting arrangement for a television system with picture-in-picture provisions.

Video signal control circuit including automatic brightness and contrast control video binare optionen signale freiburg to excess crt beam current. R,G,B level control in a liquid crystal TV using average of composite video signal. Signal processing apparatus with independent gain control for chrominance and color signals. Video system including apparatus for deactivating an automatic control arrangement.

Beam current limiting arrangement having a peak amplitude, responsive threshold.

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This website is outdated, please visit my new site here. This project proposes to advance the state of the art in highly integrated, electronically switchable intracortical electrode arrays.

We will continue to take advantage of commercially available 0. Advances beyond the current state of the art are envisaged in several directions, to be tackled by the four involved, closely interacting research groups. In parallel stimulation probes with improved charge and reconfiguration capabilities tailored to the experimental needs will be developed. Additional circuit blocks for analog-to-digital conversion of neuronal signals will be designed and interfaced with the probes.

The autonomy of the envisaged systems is ensured by dedicated microelectronic hardware in the form of either a field-programmable gate array FPGA or an embedded microcontroller, or a suitable combination of both, tailored for in-situ neuro-computational tasks. These tasks include the energy efficient extraction of relevant spatiotemporal features contained in the signal flow and the computation of optimal actions from the features.

The subjacent algorithms are elaborated on the basis of probabilistic modeling and machine learning techniques for the analysis and classification of neuronal signal, for data reduction and information maximization, and for the learning of action policies that are the basis for commands fed back to the recording probes or stimulation patterns conveyed to the brain through the stimulation probes.

The goal of the EUROPA2 project, which builds on top of the results of the successfully completed FP7 project EUROPA see below , is to bridge this gap and to develop the foundations for robots designed to autonomously navigate in urban environments outdoors as well as in shopping malls and shops, for example, to provide various services to humans. A central aspect in the project is life-long operation and reduced deployment efforts by avoiding to build maps with the robot before it can operate.

EUROPA2 is targeted at developing novel technologies that will open new perspectives for commercial applications of service robots in the future. The full automation of such task will not only have a huge impact in the automotive industry but will also act as a cornerstone in the development of advanced mobile robotic manipulators capable of dealing with unstructured environments, thus opening new possibilities in general for manufacturing SME's.

De-palletizing, Bin-Picking and Kitting. The robot and orchestration systems will be developed in a lean manner using an iterative series of development and validation testes that will not only assess the performance and usability of the system but also allow goal-driven research.

STAMINA will give special attention to the system integration promoting and assessing the development of a sustainable and scalable robotic system to ensure a clear path for the future exploitation of the developed technologies. In addition to the technological outcome, STAMINA will allow to give an impression on how a sharing of work and workspace between humans and robots could look in the future.

Mapping and digitizing archeological sites is an important task to preserve cultural heritage and to make it accessible to the public. Current systems for digitizing sites typically build upon static 3D laser scanning technology that is brought into archeological sites by humans. This is acceptable in general, but prevents the digitization of sites that are inaccessible by humans. In the field of robotics, however, there has recently been a tremendous progress in the development of autonomous robots that can access hazardous areas.

ROVINA aims at extending this line of research with respect to reliability, accuracy and autonomy to enable the novel application scenario of autonomously mapping of areas of high archeological value that are hardly accessible. ROVINA will develop methods for building accurate, textured 3D models of large sites including annotations and semantic information. To construct the detailed model, it will combine innovative techniques to interpret vision and depth data. ROVINA will furthermore develop advanced techniques for the safe navigation in the cultural heritage site.

Already during the exploration mission, we will visualize relevant environmental aspects to the end-users so that they can appropriately interact and provide direct feedback. Our system will allow experts, virtual tourists and potentially construction companies to carefully inspect otherwise inaccessible historic sites. The ROVINA consortium is targeted at developing novel methods that will, besides the indicated goal, also open new perspectives for applications where autonomy and perception matters, such as robotics.

To simplify the exploitation, all components developed in this project will be released as open source software as well as under a commercial license. Spatial Cognition is concerned with the acquisition, organization, utilization and revision of knowledge about spatial environments, be it real or abstract, human or machine. Research issues range from the investigation of human spatial cognition to mobile robot navigation. Reasoning projects are concerned with internal and external representations of space and with inference processes using these representations.

Action projects are concerned with the acquisition of information from spatial environments and with actions and behavior in these environments. Interaction projects are concerned with communication about space by means of language and maps.

The goal of TAPAS is to pave the ground for a new generation of transformable solutions to automation and logistics for small and large series production, economic viable and flexible, regardless of changes in volumes and product type. TAPAS pioneers and validates key components to realize this vision: TAPAS robots will even go beyond moving parts around the shop floor to create additional value: TAPAS robots might initially be more expensive than other solutions, but through this additional creation of value and by a faster adaptation to changes with new levels of robustness, availability, and completeness of jobs TAPAS robots promise to yield an earlier return of investment.

The goal of First-MM to build the basis for a new generation of autonomous mobile manipulation robots that can flexibly be instructed to perform complex manipulation and transportation tasks.

The project will develop a novel robot programming environment that allows even non-expert users to specify complex manipulation tasks in real-world environments. In addition to a task specification language, the environment includes concepts for probabilistic inference and for learning manipulation skills from demonstration and from experience.

The project will build upon and extend recent results in robot programming, navigation, manipulation, perception, learning by instruction, and statistical relational learning to develop advanced technology for mobile manipulation robots that can flexibly be instructed even by non-expert users to perform challenging manipulation tasks in real-world environments.

In the field of robotics, there has recently been a tremendous progress in the development of autonomous robots that offer various services to their users. Typical services include support of elderly people, cleaning, transportation and delivery tasks, exploration of unaccessible hazardous environments, or surveillance.

Most of the systems developed so far, however, are restricted to indoor scenarios, non-urban outdoor environments, or road usage with cars. There is serious lack of capabilities of mobile robots to navigate safely in highly populated outdoor environments.

This ability, however, is a key competence for a series of robotic applications. The goal of the EUROPA project is to bridge this gap and to develop the foundations for service robots designed to autonomously navigate in urban environments outdoors as well as in shopping malls and shops to provide various services to users including guidance, delivery, and transportation. EUROPA will develop and apply sophisticated probabilistic scene interpretation techniques to deal with the unpredictable and changing environments.

Based on data gathered with its sensors, the robot will acquire a detailed model of the environment, detect and track moving objects in the environment, adapt its navigation behavior according to the current situation, and communicate with its users in a natural way, even remotely.

EUROPA is targeted at developing novel technologies that will open new perspectives for commercial applications of service robots in the future. To validate the concepts developed in the project, the EUROPA robot will be deployed in populated urban environments such as the downtown area of Zurich, Switzerland, to solve a series of tasks including transportation and guidance.

Contemporary robots and other cognitive artifacts are not yet ready to autonomously operate in complex real world environments. One of the major reasons for this failure in creating cognitive situated systems is the difficulty in the handling of incomplete knowledge and uncertainty. By taking up inspiration from the brains of mammals, including humans, the BACS project will investigate and apply Bayesian models and approaches in order to develop artificial cognitive systems that can carry out complex tasks in real world environments.

The Bayesian approach will be used to model different levels of brain function within a coherent framework, from neural functions up to complex behaviors. The Bayesian models will be validated and adapted as necessary according to neuro-physiological data from rats and humans and through psychophysical experiments on humans.

The Bayesian approach will also be used to develop four artificial cognitive systems concerned with i autonomous navigation, ii multi-modal perception and reconstruction of the environment, iii semantic facial motion tracking, and iv human body motion recognition and behavior analysis. The conducted research shall result in a consistent Bayesian framework offering enhanced tools for probabilistic reasoning in complex real world situations. The performance will be demonstrated through its applications to drive assistant systems and 3D mapping, both very complex real world tasks.

The aim of the Rawseeds Project is to stimulate and support progress in autonomous robotics by providing a comprehensive, high-quality Benchmarking Toolkit.

The absence of standard benchmarks is a widely acknowledged problem in the robotics field, and is doubly harmful to it: The datasets are gathered in real-world locations. Simultaneous Localization And Mapping in robotics; but its use is not limited to them. It will be freely downloadable from this website, as soon as it is completed. The main goal of the EU project CoSy is to advance the science of cognitive systems through a multi-disciplinary investigation of requirements, design options and trade-offs for human-like, autonomous, integrated, physical eg.

The project aims at integrating leading edge technology in the field of service robotics and to develop an open, extensible system architecture. The project is funded by the German ministery of research. The EU funded project WebFAIR addresses the marketing and promotion requirements of large commercial exhibitions by providing broad access to information, services and commodities exhibited at the event. Essentially, WebFAIR aims at providing the means to remote corporate and private users for active and personalised workplace exploration and information visualisation for commercial purposes.

The simultaneous localization and mapping SLAM problem has been intensively studied in the robotics community in the past. Different techniques have been proposed but only a few of them are available as implementations to the community.

HOG-Man is a hierarchical optimization solution to the graph-based simultaneous localization and mapping problem. During online mapping, the approach corrects only the coarse structure of the scene and not the overall map. In this way, only updates for the parts of the map that need to be considered for making data associations are carried out. The hierarchical approach provides accurate non-linear map estimates while being highly efficient.

The error minimization approach furthermore exploits the manifold structure of the underlying space. In this way, it avoids singularities in the state space parameterization.

The overall approach is accurate, efficient, designed for online operation, overcomes singularities, provides a hierarchical representation, and outperforms a series of other state-of-the-art methods. TORO is an optimization approach for constraint-network.

It provides a highly efficient, gradient descent-based error minimization procedure. In , Olson et al. TORO is an extension of Olson's algorithm. It applies a tree parameterization of the nodes in the graph that significantly improves the performance and enables a robot to cope with arbitrary network topologies. The latter allows us to bound the complexity of the algorithm to the size of the mapped area and not to the length of the trajectory.

GMapping is highly efficient Rao-Blackwellized particle filer to learn grid maps I developed together with Giorgio Grisetti. The project is hosted on www. The goal is to build an automous Smart car. I am acutually not an official contributor of Radish, however, I like it and submitted a series of robotic datasets into that repository.

The Robotics Data Set Repository provides a collection of standard robotics data sets. You will find there: Logs of odometry, laser and sonar data taken from real robots. Logs of all sorts of sensor data taken from simulated robots. Environment maps generated by robots. Environment maps generated by hand i. By making these data sets available to the community, Radish aims to facilitate the development, evaluation and comparison of robotics algorithms. While the current focus is clearly on localization and mapping, Radish will ultimately expand to reflect the interests of the broader robotics community.

Radish is a community effort. Researchers are invited to download and make use of the data sets, and, in return, to make their own contributions to the repository.